World Bamboo Day is a day of celebration to increase the awareness of bamboo globally. Where bamboo grows naturally, bamboo has been a daily element, but its utilization has not always been sustainable due to exploitation. The World Bamboo Organization aims to bring the potential of bamboo to a more elevated exposure – to protect natural resources and the environment, to ensure sustainable utilization, to promote new cultivation of bamboo for new industries in regions around the world, as well as promote traditional uses locally for community economic development.
2 – 5 September : Bamboo for Flores Festival. https://www.facebook.com/groups/bambunusantara/
11 – 13 September : Annual Meeting of the American Bamboo Society, Pasadena, California USA. Stay tuned for details, www.bamboo.org
To be announced, World Bamboo Day Malaysia.
11 – 18 September : Seminar on Bamboo and Wildlife at Chalakudy S H College. India. The Creator folklore and contemporary concepts along with Anamala Collective Farms and Karinthalakootam together are organizing this year’s World Bamboo Day between 11th and 18th of September, 2018 at Thumboormuzhi Farms. The celebration of Bamboo (Monghe Nombi) will be inaugurated by Padma Vibhushan – Pandit Hariprasad Chaurasia, the master flautist on 11th September, 2014. The World Bamboo Day celebrations would see important dignitaries from India and Abroad. There will be researchers, scholars, environmentalists, naturalists, students and many more. The seven day programme will have seminars, workshops, field visits, treks and cultural programmes. The programme will end on World Bamboo Day with the inaugural of Pakkanar Indigenous University. As a run up to our main programme we are having series of events and seminars across colleges and schools in Trissur district. On 1st August, 2014, we have organized a seminar at S H College, Chalakudy. The seminar would be inaugurated by Mr. M.P.Jaison, Board Member of Bamboo Mission of Kerala. The main speaker of the day would be Dr.Annamalai Prabhakar from USA. Dr. Annamalai will speak on his research on Bison, Rats and of course on Apes, he would also speak on Rainforests of Western Ghats. Mr. Ullash Kumar, Naturalist from Bangalore, wildlife and tribal expert would speak on “Bamboo and Climate Change”. The main intention of the seminar is to inculcate the love for nature and also create awareness on the importance of our natural heritage and traditions on today’s new generation. Mr. Unnikrishna Pakkanar and team would present a short version of Bamboo Symphony. For more info, please contact Unikrishnan Pakkanar <email@example.com>
Please share WORLD BAMBOO DAY on the 18th of September, to help promote the promise of bamboo!
Bamboo is Better Because….. For centuries bamboo has played an indispensable role in the daily life of millions of people around the world. Recently it has gained an increasing importance worldwide as a substitution for timber and for a wide range of other innovative products and potentials.
Bamboo is a vital resource for mankind. Its wide distribution throughout the world overlaps with hundreds of millions of people, animals and invertebrates who depend on it as a daily essential. With thousands of uses, as food, clothing, paper, fiber, shelter, and inspiration, bamboo has traditionally contributed to the multiple physical requirements and spiritual needs of mankind. No other plant has such myriad of uses; bamboo can be transformed into hundreds of products, such as shoots for food, poles for agriculture and structures, panels and composite materials for houses and buildings, versatile household products (furniture, kitchen utensils, etc), vehicles for transportation (such as boats, bicycles, skateboards, and even ultra‐light airplanes), pulp and paper, fiber for textiles, medicinal and bio-‐chemical products (including bio‐plastics and bio‐fuels), charcoal for cooking and heating, and so much more.
Bamboo serves the needs in the daily life of more than 1 billion of people, as no other plant on Earth. The global revenue from bamboo-related sales is currently estimated at $10 billion, and it is growing!
Bamboo represents a unique group within the grass family with jointed stems. Some of the giant bamboos are the fastest-growing and most versatile plants on Earth. Shoots develop into stems (called culms) from an underground root system, the rhizome. During the growing season, they emerge and expand within 2‐3 months, reaching their final height in the very same growing season, some reaching 100 feet. There is no other plant on Earth with such a daily growth rate.
Bamboo is a self-regenerating raw material with a continuous production of new shoots. It does not die when it is cut down; it replenishes itself.
Ordinary trees have to be cultivated from seedlings, and need to grow for several decades to produce timber. The trees are cut and then new trees have to be planted again as seedlings to create a new forest. Bamboo grows into a forest by reproducing itself and continuously provides timber. It is a surprising resource for the future ; one that contributes to global economic growth as a green alternative to traditional timber.
The recent trend in ‘branding’ bamboo as a green material is based on the belief that bamboo holds the promise of a sustainable, cost effective, and ecologically benign alternative to the widespread clear-cutting of old growth forests and dwindling timber resources. Because of the merits of bamboo growing fast and its subsequent re-growth after cutting, it is indeed a renewable resource. And much like a giant lung, living forests breathe. It has been estimated that bamboo’s leafy canopy possibly releases 25 percent more oxygen than a comparable cluster of hardwood trees, especially since the bamboo re-grows and reproduces a canopy many times in its lifespan. In the renewing process, the bamboo plant grabs carbon dioxide from the air and holds it within its culm (stem) and root system where, in nature, it is not released until the soil in which the plant decomposes is cultivated. It is becoming generally accepted that one major cause of climate change is the rising levels of gasses in the earth’s atmosphere, primarily serious is that of rising levels of carbon dioxide. Products made from bamboo take that carbon out of circulation. Bamboo products which are sustainably harvested and properly manufactured can last for many generations, keeping carbon locked up over the life of the products and helping to offset carbon usage that occurs in the product shipping distances to the end-market.
Industrial bamboo products derived using best-practice technology,(even when used in the United States) can be labeled “CO2 neutral or better”. The high annual yield of bamboo, in combination with its durable root structure which enables growth in difficult habitats such as marginal lands and eroded slopes, is one of the most promising solutions in the required shift towards renewable materials.
Due to its amazing mechanical properties (hardness, dimensional stability, etc. ) and appealing looks, industrial bamboo products compete with A-quality hardwoods. In terms of annual yield as well as eco-costs and carbon footprint, industrial bamboo products score well compared to FSC hardwood (van der Lugt et al. 2009).
Bamboo is better because it is a eco‐friendly, highly renewable resource. Sustainably managed bamboo plantations can stimulate social and economic development, and serve important ecological and biological functions to improve Planet Earth.
See article by John Roach about EARTH DAY: for National Geographic PUBLISHED APRIL 21, 2014
More than a billion people around the world will celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2014—the 44th anniversary of the annual day of action. Earth Day began in 1970, when 20 million people across the United States—that’s one in ten—rallied for increased protection of the environment.
“It was really an eye-opening experience for me,” Gina McCarthy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency administrator, who was a self-described self-centered teenager during the first Earth Day rallies, told National Geographic. (See pictures: “The First Earth Day—Bell-Bottoms and Gas Masks.“)
”Not only were people trying to influence decisions on the Vietnam War,” she recalled, “but they were beginning to really focus attention on issues like air pollution, the contamination they were seeing in the land, and the need for federal action.”
At the time, she said, the environment was in visible ruins—factories legally spewed black clouds of pollutants into the air and dumped toxic waste into streams. (Learn more about air pollution.)
“I can remember the picture of the Cuyahoga River being on fire,” she said, referring to the Ohio waterway choked with debris, oil, sludge, industrial wastes, and sewage that spectacularly erupted in flames on June 22, 1969, and caught the nation’s attention.
Although members of the public were increasingly incensed at the lack of legal and regulatory mechanisms to thwart environmental pollution, green issues were absent from the U.S. political agenda.
First Earth Day “Took Off Like Gangbusters”
The environment’s low profile frustrated U.S. Senator Gaylord Nelson of Wisconsin, whose campaigns to protect it during the 1960s had fallen flat.
In 1969 Nelson hit on the idea of an environmental protest modeled after anti-Vietnam War teach-ins.
“It took off like gangbusters. Telegrams, letters, and telephone inquiries poured in from all across the country,” Nelson recounted in an essay shortly before he died in July 2005 at 89. “The American people finally had a forum to express its concern about what was happening to the land, rivers, lakes, and air—and they did so with spectacular exuberance.” (Related: “Earth Day Pictures: 20 Stunning Shots of Earth From Space.”)
Nelson recruited activist Denis Hayes to organize the April 22, 1970, teach-in, which today is sometimes credited with launching the modern environmental movement.
By the end of 1970, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency had been established, and efforts to improve air and water quality were gaining political traction.
“It was truly amazing what happened,” Kathleen Rogers, president of the Washington, D.C.-based Earth Day Network, told National Geographic News in 2009. “Blocks just tumbled.”
Earth Day Evolves
Since the first Earth Day, environmentalism has moved from a fringe issue to a mainstream concern, Amy Cassara told National Geographic News in 2010, when she was a senior associate at the World Resources Institute in Washington, D.C.
“As many as 80 percent of Americans describe themselves as environmentalists,” Cassara said.
Environmental problems today, however, are less immediate than dirty air, toxic water, and a hole in the ozone layer, she said. For example, the effects of global climate change are largely abstract and difficult to explain “without coming off as a doomsday prognosticator.” (See pictures of Earth Day stunts.)
“As we become more industrialized and our supply chains become less transparent,” she added, “it can be more difficult to understand the environmental consequences of our actions.”
McCarthy is in a new battle to protect Americans from modern environmental threats such as global climate change, which she called “one of the most significant, if not the most significant, public health issue of our time.” (See a map of global warming effects.)
As EPA chief, she is charged with implementing large portions of President Barack Obama’s controversial climate action plan, such as carbon pollution standards for new and existing power plants, which the agency says will help protect millions of Americans from the dangers of a warming planet.
People in the modern-day environmental movement, McCarthy noted, should remember the power of the grassroots activism that spurred the first Earth Day in 1970.
“It wasn’t so much about demanding national action,” she said. “It was about demanding that individuals get engaged, [and] that would then push national action.” (See your pictures of Earth.)
McCarthy is especially keen to hear more voices from minority and low-income communities, which are disproportionately affected by environmental hazards. “This is an issue where we need everybody to speak up,” she said.
Though huge problems remain, McCarthy noted, the impact of that first Earth Day has been profound. Since then, the nation’s air and water have become dramatically cleaner, and lead has disappeared from gasoline—while the economy has more than doubled in size.
“Really, it all began with Earth Day,” she said, “and the ability to have a grassroots movement that demanded that we keep people safe while we continue to grow the economy.”
Here is a brief description of the WBD celebrations in Bangladesh, coming from Abdul Kalam
Venue: Department of Co-operatives Building, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Participants: Government and private sectors, NGOs, community enterprise. Over 250 people attended!
Chief Guest Md. Humaun Khaled, Reg. & Additonal Secretary Local Government Bangladesh
Bamboo Rally: 9:00 to 11:30 am
Bamboo Plantation: 12:00 to 1:00 pm 150 bamboos were planted!
Bamboo Seminar: 1:00 to 2:00 pm “Bamboo Awareness”
Second Part : “ Digital Bamboo Fair” 10 days duration
Date: 10th to 20th October 2013 comprised of 50 stalls (booths)
Place: Mirpur, National Botanical Garden, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Chief Guest Md. Abdul Baraik, Director, National Botanical Garden.
Third Part : Bamboo Seminar, and conclusion seminar for feedback.
Date: 12th November 2013 Venue: Forest Department’s Building, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Chief Guest Md.Yunus Ali, Chief Conservator Forest Department of Bangladesh & also government higher officer.
For more information, contact Master Abul Kalam
In association with
Ministry of Environment and Forest.
Ministry of LGRD & Co-Operative
Ministry of Industries
Organized by Bangladesh Bamboo, Cane & Mat Crafts Foundation
Recognizing 10 Bamboo Businesses in the U.S.A. and Canada
World Bamboo Day 2013
If you reside in the United State or Canada you probably noticed that the ‘business of bamboo’ has come a long way in this neck of the woods in recent years. Not too long ago any bamboo company that you might come across was more than likely a bamboo flooring business. In part, the flooring industry paved the way for a bamboo consumerism. Now with modern techniques and technology, bamboo can be processed into a wide range of commodities. As of late, we are enjoying the existence of numerous other types of bamboo businesses in North America that offer a plethora of unique products and services utilizing and promoting bamboo as a replacement to traditional, less renewable materials like tree pulp, or pollutants like plastic.
The following lists 10 bamboo businesses in the U.S.A and Canada that we would like to celebrate and acknowledge this year on World Bamboo Day. Congratulations to all of them for the work they’ve done to promote bamboo alternatives for the sake of the environment and the economy. Each company here has demonstrated their passion for and dedication in promoting bamboo.
1. Bamboo Leaf Tea Bamboo leaf tea and extract have been used medicinally in the Indian Ayurvedic tradition as well as in Chinese medicine for hundreds of year. Now offered by this company founded in 2010 in sunny Florida, Bamboo Leaf Tea grows its own bamboo and processes its tea without the use of chemicals. Bamboo Leaf Tea has a wonderful sweet, green flavor and offers many benefits. The tea is a source of silica and is a whole food format which can be absorbed better than a supplement. Bamboo Leaf Tea is committed to promoting the benefits of bamboo.
2. Bambooee A staggering 13 billion pounds of paper towels are used by Americans alone, every year. That’s around 130 million trees (on the basis that one paper pulp tree provides 100 pounds of paper). Paper towels are dispensed every day in restrooms and kitchens across North America and worldwide. Bambooee, headquartered in Los Angeles, California, offers an innovative solution with its reusable but disposable bamboo towel made from bamboo viscose. They can be washed up to 100 times before beginning to break down. They have the same look and feel as ordinary paper towels – even coming in a roll, mimicking how paper towels are normally consumed. The big difference though, is that one doesn’t just tear a sheet and throw it away. Instead, each sheet of bamboo towel is washable and reusable. A roll of 20 Bambooee sheets replaces 60 paper towel rolls, helping you reduce waste and save money. Made from certified organic bamboo, a sustainable source, the Bambooee Towels are also strong, absorbant and durable.
3. Bambooki was founded in 2010 in San Diego, California. Bambooki is a response to the rapid growth of the bamboo industry, and offers consumers a one-stop shopping experience for bamboo products online. With over 1,000 products, their entire website features the top bamboo alternative products.
4. Boo Bamboo, a company hailing from Toronto, Canada, makes use of bamboo extract in their hair and skin care products because it is so rich in mineral and organic proteins. Especially for their hair care products, Boo Bamboo promotes its bamboo extract as an aid to strengthen hair follicles and retain moisture to promote shine. Not only are they committed to utilizing bamboo, but Boo Bamboo is also dedicated to using other gentle and safe ingredients across their product line.
5. Ontario Bamboo Ontario Bamboo was founded in Ontario, Canada in 2010 after several years of research – research conducted to determine which bamboo species would survive in Southern Ontario’s unpredictable climate. Ontario Bamboo is offering bamboo solutions to Southern Ontario’s ecosystemic demands with incredible environmental benefits. Ontario Bamboo prides themselves in a thorough knowledge of bamboo and the bamboo industry. They offer consultations for bamboo product development, the bamboo industry, risks and challenges, and bamboo farming.
6. Bum Boosa Bamboo Products founded in 2009 on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, they were the first company in the U.S.A. to offer baby wipes made from bamboo viscose, an alternative to traditional tree pulp and plastic fiber wipes. Billions of disposable baby wipes are tossed into landfills every year. In fact in 2008, the Chicago Tribune reported that if someone were to load all the disposable wipes purchased by consumers in North America that year onto 18 wheel semi trucks, it would take 9,000 trucks, stretching for 68 miles. That statistic is five years old, and since then the wet wipes industry continues to drastically expand. Bum Boosa® also asserts that bamboo can help alleviate the burden that our forest lands bear for other tissue and paper products. Hence, they launched the first 100% tree-free bamboo bathroom tissue offered in the U.S. and Canada in 2010.
7. Cariloha Truly the first clothier to offer an entire wardrobe from head to toe made from organic bamboo viscose blends, this company was founded back in 2007 and is headquartered in Sandy, Utah. Today Cariloha is the only multi-store retailer in the world with an entire store experience completely merchandized with bamboo-based products that now also include sheets, towels, and blankets. Their stores are located throughout the Caribbean, west and east coasts of the U.S., Hawaii, and Alaska. They are the number one apparel brand throughout the cruise industry. You really have to step inside a Cariloha store to fully appreciate the multi-sensory bamboo experience that they have skillfully created for their customers.
8. Ever Bamboo, a company founded in 2007 in Calgary, Canada, brings bamboo charcoal to North America. The benefits of bamboo charcoal have been enjoyed for more than five centuries in Asia. Bamboo charcoal has been traditionally used as a substitute for wood charcoal or mineral coal. Some of its many uses include to purify and to deodorize. As a deodorizer, it can absorb toxic chemical substances for consumer (shoe, sport equipment, fridge, closet, drawer, etc), commercial and industrial applications. When submersed in water, bamboo charcoal softens the water, absorbs harmful minerals including chlorine, and releases its natural minerals (calcium, sodium, magnesium) into the water. It can be used as aquarium filter, water filter for bath water and non-drinking water, and for general household and industrial use. It can also serve as a dehumidifier since its high density and porous structure enables bamboo charcoal to absorb excessive moisture effectively. When humidity is low, the retained moisture would be released back into the atmosphere.
9. Woo Bamboo, founded this year in 2013, and with its headquarters in Cape Coral, Florida, offers bamboo toothbrushes. Over the course of a year, most people replace their toothbrush an average of three to four times. This amounts in over a billion brushes thrown away in the United States every year. That’s about 50 million pounds of toothbrushes sitting in landfills across the country every year with more piling on every day. Most traditional brushes are made from non-biodegradable materials, which mean that these brushes will keep sitting in the landfill for years to come. It’s very rare for these brushes to get recycled, and trying to dispose of them by burning or other methods just makes more pollution and waste. It’s poor hygiene to keep your toothbrush for more than a few months, so Woo Bamboo offers a solution with a bamboo toothbrush. The bamboo used in a WOOBAMBOO toothbrush is sustainably grown, organic, BPA-free, naturally anti-microbial, durable, biodegradable, and it’s stylish, too! WOOBAMBOO also totes the highest quality Dupont Tynex bristles, so your dentist would approve, as well.
10. Bamboosa founded in 2008 and located in Andrews, South Carolina, they are a clothier specializing in fiber from organically grown bamboo. All of their clothing are made from 100% viscose fiber produced from certified organically grown bamboo or blended with cotton, organic cotton, Lycra or recycled polyester. Bamboosa’s bamboo viscose is imported from China, and all fabric production, as well as dyeing and sewing, are created in South Carolina by second and third generation seamstresses who take great pride in what they do.
*A special thank you to each of these companies listed above for participating in World Bamboo Day celebrations with World Bamboo Organization this year. Each company has generously donated their products to share with participants at our World Bamboo Day 2013 5K Walk/Run Race in Cotuit Village on 9/21/2013.
* Although not a bamboo company per se, we would also like extend our gratitude to Water the Bamboo for their participation and support of World Bamboo Day 2013. Water the Bamboo is a company providing inspirational and motivational presentations, using bamboo as a remarkable metaphor that inspires businesses and organizations to grow.
AND A BIG THANK YOU to the BAMBOO GARDEN of North Plains, Oregon for donating the non-invasive bamboo plants as Award Gifts for the Race Winners!
18 septembre est la JOURNÉE MONDIALE DU BAMBOU .
Le mercredi 18 septembre est la JOURNÉE MONDIALE DU BAMBOU . À cet effet nous organisons un jeu de piste qui sera disponible sur notre parc le mercredi 18, samedi 21 et dimanche 22 septembre de 11h à 18h (la caisse ferme à 17h).
Ce jeu de piste est pour toute la famille ou à faire entre amis et vous prendra environ 1h30. Il y aura plusieurs panneaux cachés sur notre parc avec différentes indications. Ces indications vous aideront à trouver le panneau suivant et vous donneront un indice sur l’animal mystère à retrouver. Autour de ces panneaux seront cachés plusieurs lettres qui vous aideront à décrypter un code secret pour trouver un mot mystère. De plus sur le parc entier seront suspendus 8 lettres qui formeront ce mot mystère.
Quand vous aurez trouvé l’animal et le mot mystère vous pouvez nous l’envoyer par e-mail. Ainsi vous participerez au tirage au sort et peut-être vous gagnerez un plant de bambou, un abonnement pour le Parc aux Bambous, un xylophone en bambou et bien d’autres cadeaux.
Pour pouvoir participer au jeu de piste il faut payer l’entrée du Parc aux Bambous.
Tarif : 3€50 pour les – de 12 ans
7€00 pour les 12 ans et +
Le mercredi 18 septembre c’est gratuit pour les – de 12 ans.
Mercredi 18 septembre 2013 à l’occasion de la fête du bambou le parc aux bambous et Nect’Art du bien-être vous proposent :
« Nature et Mandala »
Le mandala est une représentation a la fois du soi et du monde une parallèle dela cellule et son noyau origine de tout organisme vivant qui correspond aux lois fondamentales de la création.
Le mandala est un symbole de la totalité le créer spontanément, nous permet inconsciemment de s’explorer, de mettrede l’ordre, de se recentrer, se reconstruire et guérir notre être intérieur. Un puissant support de croissance, de transformation, une source d’éveil, de calme et de concentration. Venez participer à la création de mandala géant ou nous utiliserons les éléments que nous offre dame nature pour transmettre notre plus beau symbole d’amour.
Tarif 17€ de 14h30à 17h30. Le prix inclus l’accès au parc pour toute la journée
For more information, contact firstname.lastname@example.org
2013 World Bamboo Day 5K Walk/Run Race in Cotuit Village, Cotuit, Massachusetts
Join us on Saturday, September 21, 2013 in Cotuit Village for a scenic 5K Walk/Run in celebration of World Bamboo Day! Many thanks to our generous sponsors,which include bamboo businesses from across the United States and Canada. Some of the sponsoring organizations include Woo Bamboo, Cariloha, EverBamboo, Bamboo Leaf Tea, Bambooee, Bum Boosa Bamboo Products, Boo Bamboo, Bambooki, Bamboosa Clothing, Water the Bamboo and Bamboo Ontario. Food for the event is generously donated by Panera Bread of Mashpee. The first 125 pre-registered participants will receive a bamboo gift bag full of unique and interesting bamboo products from these sponsors, such as bamboo tooth brushes, bamboo soap, bamboo tea, bamboo socks, bamboo cosmetics, and bamboo wet wipes. There will be items raffled off such as bamboo massages by En Route Spa, bamboo SUP board guided tours by Peace Love SUP, and gift certificates by online bamboo merchant www.bambooki.com.
Winners will receive non-invasive bamboo plants donated by Bamboo Garden!
On the morning of the race please arrive by 8:15AM at the Cotuit Federated Church located at 40 School Street, Cotuit, MA 02635. On street parking and parking at the Cotuit Post Office will be available.
The race will begin at 9AM!
Entry Fee $27.50
CLICK HERE TO REGISTER for the Race
All proceeds benefit World Bamboo Organization
Water and healthy snacks will be provided on the morning of the event.
Gift bags will be available for pickup on the morning of the event.
Prizes to be announced!
Course Description/ Race Route:
Location: Cotuit Village, MA
Start adjacent to sign for Cotuit Federated Church on School Street
Straight and Take Right on Highland St
Right onto Old Oyster Road
Left on Coolidge
Right on Main Street
Left on Ocean View Ridge Road past Loop Beach
Right onto Main Street
Left on Piney Road
Right onto School Street
Return to Cotuit Federated Church Finish line
Total Distance: 3.1 miles/5K
If you have any questions please contact Sonja Sheasley at 508-539-1373 ext 5 or email email@example.com
REGISTER BY CLICKING THE LINK ABOVE
World Bamboo Day 2013 Celebration in Thailand
Date: 18 September 2013
Bamboo Seminar: “Bamboo Knowledge Management for Sustainability”
Venue: Research and Development Building, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand
Time: 11.30 am – 4.30 pm
Participants: Government and private sectors, NGOs, community enterprise, academia
Organizer: Kasetsart University Center of Excellence on Bamboos, Thailand
For more information, contact Sarawood Sungkaew, <firstname.lastname@example.org>
|13.00 hrs||Opening ceremony|
|13.15 hrs||Keynote AddressesAbout…World Bamboo DayAssoc. Prof. Dr. Songkram ThamminchaKnowledge…Exotic Bamboo on the Highland
Assist. Prof. Dr. Bunvong Thaiutsa
|14.45 hrs||Coffee/Tea Break|
|15.15 hrs||PresentationDraft Master Plan of Kasetsart University Center of Excellence on BamboosAssist. Prof. Dr. Sapit Diloksumpun|
|16.30 hrs||Closing ceremony|